“Anecdotal evidence says by and large the use of Therapeutic Cannabis provides a significant improvement in quality of life both for those suffering from (PTSD) and for their family and friends.”
A very interesting article was written by Raphael Mechoulam, Ph.D. It was titled “General use of Cannabis for PTSD Symptoms“. Click on this link to visit the http://veteransformedicalmarijuana.org website to read the article.
More American Vets have died after returning home and then suffering with PTSD and Complex PTSD, than have died on the battlefields of recent U.S. Wars. Suicide is not uncommon.
PTSD and Complex PTSD is not a burden that just returning American Vets have to deal with. Victims of Narcissistic Abuse could also become afflicted with PTSD and Complex PTSD.
The legalization of Medical Cannabis is removing the stigma of using Cannabis, a naturally occurring plant, as part of a Medical Treatment. Medical Cannabis may become a recommended treatment for PTSD and Complex PTSD. It has been used successfully by individuals, but because it was “illegal”, Researchers in the past could not do Medical Studies using Cannabis as a treatment protocol.
The FDA may approve a Research Study using Medical Cannabis but the Researchers must get the Cannabis from another agency named NIDA, which controls the one single U.S. Government source of Medical Cannabis. NIDA (National Institute on Drug Abuse) can put a full stop to any FDA approved Study using Medical Cannabis. Hence, in the US there have been precious few Medical Studies on the benefits of Medical Cannabis as a treatment. There are huge numbers of personal accounts of Cannabis being used to successfully treat for example Brain Cancer, Leukemia and PTSD. But the real life truth is called Anecdotal Evidence, which has little value to Government agencies which look for Peer Reviewed Medical Studies which could not be done because Government agencies had Cannabis officially classified as being illegal.
In the video below, Dr. Sue Sisley speaks about Treating PTSD with Medical Cannabis.
Video is courtesy of the Cannabis Saves Lives! YouTube channel
Updated yet again on Apr 28 2017.
Stockholm Syndrome (Trauma Bonding) is said to keep those being abused, in the abusive relationship. They cannot leave their abuser.
I am posting this because I believe there is something to learn from the Rat Cage / Rat Park experiments.
I believe that victims of relationship abuse are stuck in the equivalent of an empty Rat Cage. They feel alone and not connected to anyone who cares about them. They may have been isolated from Family and Friends by physically moving to a different city. Abusers instinctively seem to know that if they can isolate someone, then they can control them and physically or mentally abuse them without outside interference. Again without a support structure, the victim is alone as in the isolated Rat Cage.
The drug in this scenario is the Abuser. Just as Rats isolated in a Rat Cage became addicted, so do the Abuse Victims. If the Victim does leave, then they could suffer from PTSD or worse. They will constantly think about the Abuser and often return to their Abuser, even after horrific physical abuse. In my opinion, this is highly similar to addiction.
Further proof of this concept comes from the same Rat Cage / Rat Park experiment. When the isolated and heavily addicted rats are moved out of an isolated environment into a Rat Park with lots of other rats and lots of stimulating things to do and play with, they lose their addiction.
Going further, Victims of abuse need to move into a Rat Park environment. They need to be among people who care. Friends and family who will morally support them. They need to also have fun. Being abused is “NOT FUN”. I suspect that once the victim is moved into a Rat Park type environment, then their addiction to the abuser could dissipate without symptoms of PTSD etc.
That brings up the lack of such a Rat Park environment for Abuse Victims. They should be surrounded by people who care, people who will try to help them. People who will talk to them. One common theme from Victims going thru forms of Therapy is that they cry their eyes out during the therapy sessions. They have no one to talk to. They feel that no one cares. Like the Rats in the isolated Rat cage. The Rats become addicted to the point of destroying themselves. Victims become addicted to their Abuser. For many victims this addiction destroys them. In my opinion, the Rat Park experiment shows the need to create a Human equivalent of a Rat Park for Victims of Abuse, so that victims can end their “Addiction” to their Abuser.
We have Women’s Shelters filled with women seeking help but percentage wise rather few “Helpers”. We have Therapy, which costs money that the abuse Victim may not have. No money, equals No Help. We have Public Housing, but with long waiting lists. We have legal aid for people convicted of a crime, but Victims of Relationship Abuse may not “qualify”. Society has a disorienting and disconnected patchwork of supposed help and so Victims cannot get away. It may not just be Trauma Bonding which is holding them back. As a society, we do not have an all inclusive support system, like a Rat Park human equivalent environment, to help Abuse Victims if they want to leave their Abuser, Heal and Recover. So they remain “stuck” in Abusive Relationships.
I have received email comments suggesting that it may be the Victim’s lack of confidence to express their feeling that could be at fault. A Victim’s typical inability to establish and enforce clear boundaries is in my opinion, a Learned Survival Mechanism. During early childhood, we learn how to survive in our home environment. Some kids are lucky and are born into loving and caring families. Other kids are not so lucky and have to adapt and learn behaviors to survive. That applies to Disordered Individuals also. One’s early childhood helps to form the future Adult. The work of the late Alice Miller readily comes to mind. I have referred to Abysmal Parenting or the lack of Parenting as being the primary cause of adult dysfunction. Many a Narcissist was not raised by their Birth Mother for example. On the other hand, when a Victim is physically being beaten Black and Blue, IMHO clearly the Abuser is at fault and “not” the Victim.
Video is courtesy of the Alice Miller YouTube channel
There was a video posted here of an English couple. The Husband gave his wife a couple of black eyes one night. The Police showed up and his attitude was as if nothing wrong happened. He called out to his wife and asked if she wanted to speak to the Police. Thankfully the Police had body video recorders running.
I have a friend who was isolated to a different country by a very Disordered Individual. Once isolated, the abuse became physical. One time she was beaten so badly that she ended up being hospitalized for months. It was not her inability to speak up for herself that is to blame. If you start to speak up for yourself to a very disordered individual, you could very well be beaten Black and Blue. IMHO the Abuser is at fault and they are totally responsible for their behavior. View the video in the link shown above. Getting two black eyes was not the Victim’s fault.
I believe that when one learns about the Red Flags and if one starts to see multiple Red Flags on a consistent basis then one is able to get a better idea of who one is interacting with. It has nothing to do with putting labels on people before they do anything wrong. If one does not take heed of those Red Flags and falls prey to an Abuser, then it’s too late. Yes, people are out there who abuse other people. Yes, there are people with Codependent Traits and lots of Empathy, who seem to be attracted to those who abuse. Those who will abuse others also seem to be rather attracted to those who have lots of Empathy and Codependent traits. People call someone an Abuser after they have abused someone. It is not a matter of innocent until proven guilty. They get called that label because they have abused their victim. All abuse is bad, but some abuse is horrific.
I’m posting this for everyone to think about it. The videos below give more details about Dr. Bruce Alexander and his Rat Park experiment. BTW that Rat Park experiment has been repeated many times, with the same results. So it has been scientifically proven.
Video is courtesy of the MinuteVideos YouTUbe channel
Video is courtesy of the Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell YouTube channel
Video is courtesy of The Agenda with Steve Paikin YouTube channel
Kristin Snowden discusses Gaslighting as a form of relational trauma. Her video hopes to help people identify how this Emotionally Abusive Behavior can be uncovered and overcome.
Long term exposure to relational trauma could lead to the development of Depression, Anxiety Disorders, PTSD and Complex PTSD.
Video is courtesy of the Kristin Snowden YouTube channel
Click on this Link to visit Kristin Snowden’s website.
Yes, this is a long video, but Kristin knows what she is talking about. I believe it is very informative and well worth watching. Kristin Snowden is an experienced Licensed Therapist.
Kristin Minto Snowden, LMFT
California Licensed Marriage and Family Therapist #81413
Individual, Couples, and Family Therapy Treating Addiction Recovery, Relationships, Intimacy, Betrayal Trauma (Infidelity), Divorce Recovery, and Family Issues.
Narcissists will try to Gaslight the victim that their actions were not abusive or that any problems in the relationship are totally the fault of the Victim. In the privacy of their shared home, the Disordered Individual will not give a 2nd thought to verbally and emotionally abusing their victim. But in public, their behavior changes to project a false image that are caring and loving, while the Victim is made out to be the abuser in the relationship. Crazy making is an apt description. Victims could end up with PTSD and Complex PTSD as a result of being exposed to long term Emotional Abuse.
Video is courtesy of the Kati Morton YouTube channel.
Video courtesy of The Young Turks YouTube channel
Video courtesy of the MAPS YouTube channel
Video is courtesy of the London Real YouTube channel
Disclaimer – some people dismiss Neuro Linguistic Programming (also known as NLP).
I do not, but I also do not believe that NLP is a cure all for everything. In my opinion NLP provides powerful Tools. I can give our visitors an extremely expensive and well made set of wrenches and I doubt that anyone would be able to take apart and put back together the engine in their automobile with said wrenches. Tools required experienced hands. The same applies to NLP techniques.
If you get a chance, do some research on NLP and Richard Bandler. You can buy videos of his seminars from his site and on Amazon.com. There is tons of info available on the internet about NLP. Your local Public Library should also have books on Neuro Linguistic Programming, including by folks like Richard Bandler and Steve Andreas
It is my opinion that a number of things in NLP work. The Phobia Cure, for example, in my opinion works. That protocol in my opinion may work for other things.
Disclaimer – The videos below are not meant as medical advice for anyone. They are posted for educational and entertainment purposes. Speak with your Therapist or other Medical Practitioner about the content of the videos and whether NLP could be of help with your situation. I make no claims whether anything shown in the videos is appropriate for your situation or for anyone’s situation for that matter. It is your choice to view any of the videos below and you do so at your own risk.
Video is courtesy of the realpeoplepress YouTube channel
Video is courtesy of the realpeoplepress YouTube channel
Steve Andreas is very well known in NLP circles and has been helping people for decades.
Video is courtesy of the realpeoplepress YouTube channel
Video is courtesy of the realpeoplepress YouTube channel
Video is courtesy of the realpeoplepress YouTube channel
This next video features Richard Bandler (one of the two developers of Neuro Linguistic Programming)
Video is courtesy of the NLPLife YouTube channel
Neuro Linguistic Programming is not magic. NLP is a set of tools which require experienced practitioners.
Infant Attachment Trauma caused by the Birth Mother or by the infant being given away to be raised by someone other than the Birth Mother (Grandparents or adopted out) can result in a Cluster-B Disordered Individual such as a Narcissist.
Childhood Trauma (later form of Attachment Trauma) caused by one or both parents can result in a Codependent Individual. One or more of the parents could be Cluster-B Disordered.
I am of the opinion that said Individuals (Narcissist or Codependent) are created (not born – ie not genetic) because of variations of Attachment Trauma inflicted on them via Abysmal Parenting.
John Bradshaw’s work raised the awareness of the concept of the Injured Inner Child. I have spoken to people with high levels of Narcissistic Traits, about their childhood. It was like I was talking to a different individual. even their vocal characteristic changed. I have crossed paths with Narcissists and have paid the price. Yet I still feel sorry for them. In my opinion it is not their fault that they are the way they are. The same for folks with Codependent Traits.
Keeping this site going I have again come full circle back to Attachment Trauma. I was reminded of that today while researching the website of a San Francisco Bay area Complex PTSD Therapist. I have to get in touch with him, to see if I can share some of his material on this site.
Taking my theory further, a relationship between a Narcissist and a Codependent could result in further Trauma. The Codependent could develop PTSD (or Complex PTSD if the relationship had been a long term one). The Narcissist could also suffer Trauma in the form of Narcissist Injury (Abandonment Trauma), from the loss of their valued Source of Narcissistic Supply. In the extreme, the Narcissist could attempt Suicide because of that Trauma and injury (I have witnessed this with Somatic Narcissists). Both types of individuals were created due to Trauma and when combined into a relationship both end up creating more Trauma. The Codependent could also develop Trauma Bonding if the relationship becomes abusive, and cannot leave.
Narcissists are attracted to Codependents.
Codependents are attracted to Narcissists.
Maybe the Injured Inner Child (see Alice Miller’s book titled : “The Drama of The Gifted Child“ and John Bradshaw’s books and videos about the Inner Child) of each type of individual can somehow pickup on the injured Inner Child in the other type of individual. The Injured Inner Child could be the source of the attraction between Codependents and Narcissists.
The common theme in the above is Trauma. The destructive Domino cascade is initiated by Extremely Poor to non-existent Parenting. Another area where our Educational Systems have failed Society. How many of you reading this, have had courses which detailed Great Parenting?
The most important role that a Human can have is to become a Great Parent. Yet we get zero formal training. I have had to take many courses in say Accounting and Statistics which I will “never” use. I have had zero courses detailing how to be a Great Parent. Does this make sense to you???
A revealing video from someone suffering with Complex PTSD.
Video is courtesy of the Cecilia Romero YouTube channel
There are therapies, such as EMDR, which defy explanation of how they work neurobiologically.
Video is courtesy of The Psychology Webinar Group YouTube Channel
The following is quoted from Wikipedia: In 1999, EMDR was a controversial therapy within the psychological community, and in 2000, its efficacy compared to other treatments and underlying mechanism was the subject of debate. However, since 2004, EMDR was recommended as an effective treatment for trauma in the Practice Guidelines of the American Psychiatric Association, the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Defense, SAMHSA, the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, and the World Health Organization.
EMDR is an “Officially” recognized Psychotherapy.
The following is quoted from Wikipedia: Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is a psychotherapy developed by Francine Shapiro that emphasizes disturbing memories as the cause of psychopathology. It is used to help with the symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). According to Shapiro, when a traumatic or distressing experience occurs, it may overwhelm normal coping mechanisms. The memory and associated stimuli are inadequately processed and stored in an isolated memory network.
From the official EMDR International Association site: “No one knows how any form of psychotherapy works neurobiologically or in the brain.”.
The following is quoted from Wikipedia:
Phase I History and Treatment Planning
- The therapist conducts an initial evaluation of the client’s history and develops a general plan for treatment. This includes the problems which are the primary complaint of the client and a history of distressing memories which will become the targets for reprocessing.
Phase II Preparation
- The therapist helps the client develop ways to cope with distressing emotions so that they are able to calm down and help themselves in between therapy sessions. Commonly this is done with guided imagery or other relaxation techniques.
Phase III Assessment
- The therapist asks the client to visualize an image that represents the disturbing event. Along with it, the client describes a thought or negative cognition (NC) associated with the image. The client is asked to develop a positive cognition (PC) to be associated with the same image that is desired in place of the negative one. The client is asked how strongly he or she believes the PCs to be true using a 1–7 scale (completely false to completely true) called the Validity of Cognition (VOC) scale. The client is also asked to identify what emotions he or she feels. The client is then asked to rate his or her level of distress on a scale from 0–10, with 0 being no distress and 10 being the most distress they can imagine. This is the same as a Subjective Units of Distress scale (SUD) that is commonly used in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). Finally the client is asked to identify where in the body he or she is sensing the feelings.
Phase IV Desensitization
- During the reprocessing phases of EMDR therapy, the client focuses on the disturbing memory in multiple brief sets of about 15–30 seconds. Simultaneously, the client focuses on the dual attention stimulus, which consists of focusing on the trauma while the clinician initiates lateral eye movement or another stimulus such as a pulsing light held in each hand, or tapping on the knees. Following each set, the client is asked what associative information was elicited during the procedure. This new material usually becomes the focus of the next set or another aspect of the memory may be guided by the clinician. This process of personal association is repeated many times during the session. This process continues until the client no longer feels as distressed when thinking of the target memory.
Phase V Installation
- The therapist asks the client to focus on the event along with the PC developed in phase III. The client is asked to hold in mind the memory with the positive thought as the therapist continues with the bilateral stimulation. When the client feels he or she is certain the PC is fully believed and that belief is as strong as possible, the installation phase is complete.
Phase VI Body Scan
- At this phase the goal of the therapist is to identify any uncomfortable sensations that could be lingering in the body when thinking about the target memory and the PC. While thinking about the event and the positive belief the client is asked to scan over his or her body entirely, searching for tension, tightness or other unusual physical sensation. Any negative sensations are targeted and then diminished, using the same bilateral stimulation technique from phases IV and V. The PCs should be incorporated emotionally as well as intellectually. Phase VI is complete when the client is able to think and speak about the event along with the PC without feeling any physical or emotional discomfort.
Phase VII Closure
- Not all traumatic events will be resolved completely within one session. If the client is significantly distressed the therapist will guide the client through relaxation techniques that are designed to bring about emotional stability and tranquility. The client will also be asked to use these same techniques for experiences that might arise between sessions such as strong emotions, unwanted imagery, and negative thoughts. The client may be encouraged to keep a brief log of these experiences, allowing for easy recall and processing during the next session.
Phase VIII Reevaluation
With every new session, the therapist will reevaluate the work done in the prior session. The therapist will also assess how well the client managed on his or her own in between visits. At this point, the therapist will decide whether it is best to continue working on previous targets or continue to newer ones.
Pushing away someone who is becoming too close to you. When you got hurt badly in the past, you could trigger a Defense Mechanism to try and protect yourself from getting hurt again. It prevents someone with Complex PTSD from establishing close relationships with others.
Video is courtesy of the
Narcissistic Abuse Victim Syndrome YouTube channel
“A very subtle way to create damage in children is to turn the chosen scapegoat child into a parent.
This process is called Parentification, not to be confused with parenting. In Parentification the parent gives up what they are supposed to do as a parent and transfers that responsibility to the scapegoat child. Hence the scapegoat child becomes parentified.”
Video is courtesy of the Light of Knowledge YouTube channel
If you grew up with an Abusive Parent and in a Dysfunctional Household, there is a high probability that you may have a wounded child inside of you. An adult can escape from an abusive relationship, but a child never has that option.
John Bradshaw’s Home Coming was a series which was broadcast by Public Broadcasting in the US. This video is the first of many in the series.
If you are an adult who grew up in a Dysfunctional Household and are trying to understand what the hell happened to your childhood, might I suggest looking into finding a licensed therapist to help in your healing. You might be trying to deal with symptoms of Complex PTSD on your own and it is far from easy.
The Home Coming series and other videos and books from John Bradshaw might help you make some sense of what your parent(S) put you though.
I’m posting this because a visitor to this blog left me a comment about their situation. Hope that this post might be of help (John Bradshaw’s Home Coming video series is old, but it is filled with great info).
John Bradshaw – a few excerpts from Home Coming – Part 1:
The Problem of the Wonderful Inner Child
Video is courtesy of the John Bradshaw YouTube channel
Click on this link to visit the official John Bradshaw website.
Click on this link to visit amazon.com to view the books and videos by John Bradshaw.
If you have come from an abusive relationship and ended up with Complex PTSD symptoms, Narcissists would happily feed you lines.
If you have gotten over Complex PTSD, the suggestion in the video is to consider staying single for at least a year. That means do not date anyone. Individuals who have had Complex PTSD make perfect targets for Manipulative Narcissists.
Stay single and continue working with a great Therapist.
.Video is courtesy of the What’s Wrong … with Kris and Steve YouTube channel
In the video below Dr. Frank Ochberg, an expert on traumatic stress explains both Chronic PTSD and Complex PTSD. He also discusses the differences between them.
Video is courtesy of the Gift From Within YouTube channel
What is Complex PTSD?
Complex PTSD, is the result of multiple traumatic events occurring over a period of time, often referred to as “complex trauma”. Causes include multiple incidents of child abuse, particularly child physical abuse and child sexual abuse, prolonged domestic violence, concentration camp experiences, torture, slavery, and genocide campaigns. Complex Post-traumatic Stress Disorder is not a diagnosis in the DSM-5 psychiatric manual, released in 2013, but is planned for inclusion in the ICD-11 diagnostic manual, due for release in 2017. 
Complex PTSD Symptoms
- Interpersonal problems includes social and interpersonal avoidance (avoiding relationships), feeling distance or cut off from others, and never feeling close to another person.
- Negative self-concept involves feelings of worthlessness and guilt. While survivors of PTSD may feel “not myself”, a survivor of Complex PTSD may feel no sense of self at all or experience a changed personality; a few may feel as if they are no longer human at all (Lovelace and McGrady, 1980; Timerman, 1981).:385-386. Believing yourself to be “contaminated, guilty, and evil” is commonly reported by survivors of Complex PTSD. A fragmented identity is common, with Dissociative Identity Disorder occurring in some people. :386
- Interpersonal sensitivity includes having feelings which are easily hurt, anger/temper outbursts and difficulties with interpersonal relationships. Complex PTSD is normally the result of interpersonal trauma, the long duration of the trauma and the control of the perpetrator(s) prevents people from expressing anger or rage at the perpetrator(s) during the trauma; anger and rage both at perpetrators and the self can only be fully expressed after the trauma ends. Prolonged abuse normally leads to a loss of previously-held beliefs, with feelings of “being forsaken by both man and God”. :382,386
- Affect dysregulation means being unable to manage your own emotions, and is often referred to as “difficulties with emotional regulation”. The unexpressed anger and internalized rage resulting from the trauma may lead to self-destructive or reckless/risk taking behaviors, e.g., self-harm and/or suicide attempts, which may be driven by a sense of self-hatred. :382, 
- People with Complex PTSD also meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD, which are:
- a persistent sense of threat, e.g. hypervigilance and being easily startled
- avoiding reminders of the traumas,
- and re-experiencing or reliving the traumas, for example flashbacks and intrusive thoughts about the trauma.
In addition to the symptoms above, survivors of prolonged child abuse have an increased risk of both self-injury and repeated victimization, for example relationships with abusive people, sexual harassment, and rape. :387
Judith Lewis-Herman, who first proposed Complex PTSD as a separate diagnosis, stated:
Observers who have never experienced prolonged terror, and who have no understanding of coercive methods of control, often presume that they would show greater psychological resistance than the victim in similar circumstances. The survivor’s difficulties are all too easily attributed to underlying character problems, even when the trauma is known. When the trauma is kept secret, as is frequently the case in sexual and domestic violence, the survivor’s symptoms and behavior may appear quite baffling, not only to lay people but also to mental health professionals. The clinical picture of a person who has been reduced to elemental concerns of survival is still frequently mistaken for a portrait of the survivor’s underlying character.” :388
There is a lot more information in the post at http://traumadissociation.com/complexptsd.html#icd
Might I suggested to visit and Bookmark the http://traumadissociation.com site, as it is great resource about Trauma Disorders and Dissociative Disorders.
Complex Trauma: Understanding and Treatment
Video is courtesy of the FOCL Online YouTube channel
Quoting from the text which was posted with this video:
“Historically, when someone has experienced trauma that has a lasting impact, they have been diagnosed with Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In recent years those who work with trauma victims have advocated for an additional category: Complex Trauma. Therapeutic work with those who have experienced either multiple traumas or Repetitive and Chronic Trauma”
In the video the presenter speaks about the abuse of Children and suffering multiple traumas. That the same Multiple Trauma Stress, can also “injure” an adult. For example, the victim of Narcissist Abuse becomes “marinated” in the Repetitive and Chronic Trauma.
Between the Traumatic Events will be “reward” type of events. The victim is cycled between reward and Trauma/Punishment events. That sets the Victim up for Trauma Bonding to occur. The emotional injuries alter the victim.
When one leaves an abusive relationship, the injuries do not disappear. Nor does the Trauma Bond break. The victim’s day will be filled with thoughts of the Abusive Narcissist.
The Victim will wonder if maybe the Narcissist was right and it was their own fault. The Narcissist would never admit to being at fault, always shifting the blame back to the Victim. There is an old saying that “If you tell people a “Lie” often enough, it becomes the “truth”.
Flashbacks are common.The inability to shut off the Flight or Fight response when a situation is not harmful. In my opinion, Complex Trauma can develop in both children and adults who have experienced Multiple Trauma or Repetitive and Chronic Trauma. I believe that Trauma Bonding can also be found in adult victims of abuse who have developed Complex Trauma.
This video is complete webinar in which Steve Stokes, Clinical Practice Consultant, shares insights and practical guidance about Complex Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Effects of Developmental and Accumulative Trauma.
Who is Steve Stokes, you ask?
“Steve has been working in the Addictions and Mental Health Field for 27 years and runs Steve Stokes Counselling Services and Consulting. He is also the Clinical Program Consultant at South Pacific Private, Australia’s Leading Treatment Center in Curl Curl, N.S.W, Australia. In his Role he provides internal and external training at Conferences and Workshops as well as facilitating monthly Webinars for SPP.
Steve also has over 30 years personal Sobriety from Addiction in 12 step fellowships.Steve specializes in Developmental Trauma Treatment and Complex PTSD and Affect Regulation and it’s relationship to all Addiction Treatment. Steve specializes in Sex Addiction Treatment, Sex , Love and Avoidance addiction Treatment and co-occurring addictions and underlying Developmental Trauma.”
Video is courtesy of the South Pacific Private YouTube channel